The new coronavirus has caused 16.54 million people worldwide to be infected with COVID-19, of which 650,000 have died. Whether it is overseas countries that are being ravaged by the epidemic, or China, which is under overall control and partial intermittent emergence, all have gone all out to develop a vaccine against the new coronavirus. Because this is the only hope for mankind to be free from the new coronavirus.At present, more than 170 vaccines have entered the clinical trial stage, and the leading ones are as follows.
Moderna’s mRNA vaccine became the world’s first new coronavirus vaccine to undergo clinical trials. It has received US$955 million in research and development support from the US government twice. The background is that no mRNA vaccine has been marketed yet, but because of its rapid development and large-scale production, it has been in a leading position from the very beginning.Experts believes that this vaccine may be reliable.
Inovia DNA vaccine is a very old and very old biological company. It has been silent, but it is silently leading the DNA vaccine . This time, it received US$710 million in research and development support from the US government.
Novavax protein vaccine has made a unique protein vaccine with recombinant nanoparticle and patented adjuvant technology that can induce high levels of neutralizing antibodies. Received US$1.6 billion technical support from the US government.
Health and longevity have always been the eternal themes of mankind. After the basic needs of food, clothing, housing, transportation, etc. have been solved, the concern for diseases has become increasingly intense. The advancement of science and technology is leading the advancement of medicine, especially in the field of biological research and development in recent years.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) has a 2017 budget of US$1,102.9 billion, accounting for 28.6% of the entire federal budget it is nearly double the US$565.3 billion (14.7%) budget of the second-place Department of Defense.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has a budget of $39.2 billion in 2019. These funds are not only invested in universities, medical schools and hospitals, but also in pharmaceutical companies, enterprises, and many small companies.
There are many such micro-pharmaceutical R&D companies around us, relying on NIH’s Small Business Grants to maintain them and waiting for substantial breakthroughs . In the stage of relying on NIH funds, the income of scientific researchers is not ideal but it is the most dynamic company, because the funding comes from NIH, but the possible results belong to them.
System ensures that developers benefit
And what really allowed American researchers to go all out and be willing to endure difficulties the Bayh-Dole Act in the United States .
Before 1980, the United States also suffered from the low rate of achievement conversion, wasting government investment, causing idle waste of scientific and technological achievements, and even some of the achievements were used by other countries for free or first applied for patents, which severely weakened the national scientific and technological competitiveness of the United States. .
In order to change this situation, members of the US Congress began to promote legislation in an effort to formulate a unified and stable federal policy.
In 1980, the most important achievement of the reform of ownership of scientific and technological achievements in the United States, the Bayh-Dole Act , was introduced.
The right to the results of government-funded research is reserved by R&D institutions by default . Universities and other institutions should actively promote and transform the results the government has the right to recover the results when the universities and other institutions cannot serve the market the institution shares the results with the inventor Conversion revenue, etc.
According to the statistics of the American Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM), after the total revenue is deducted from the operating costs of school institutions, universities, faculties and inventors each account for about one-third of the results . However, the proportions of different schools and different cases vary greatly.
There are also American universities that implement a cumulative reduction system. For example, if the cumulative income is less than 1 million US dollars, the inventor gets 40% the cumulative income is between 1 million and 10 million US dollars, and the inventor receives 30% to 20%; and more than 10 million US dollars. , The inventor gets 15%, and so on.
Researchers benefit directly and become one of the biggest motivations for clinical research.
These scientific researchers with breakthrough technologies quickly formed market transformation.The above-mentioned policy support has also answered many friends’ questions, “American doctors earn hundreds of thousands of dollars a year, why do they still need to do scientific research?”
Because once the development is successful, the class composition will be completely changed. After investigating hundreds of visiting scholars to the United States, I discovered the biggest secret of the effectiveness of clinical research in the United States
American doctors and scientists also benefit from this
For example, the three winners of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine are all doctors and physician scientists.One of the winners was William G. Kaelin, Jr.
A, is an oncologist and professor at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute of Harvard Medical School,
B, is the co-founder of two biopharmaceutical/technology companies,
C, is also a board member of Eli Lilly and Company, and a scientific advisor to another emerging biomedical company.