Preventative Controls Guide on COVID-19 (Professor Wenhong Zhang)

Naming:2019-nCoV, novel, coronavirus

Carrier:Person with or without symptoms can spread the virus.

Transmission methods:From human to human. The major transmission is through respiratory activities and
media such as saliva. Transmission routes such as aerosol and digestive tract have yet to be clarified

Vulnerable group:Senior people and people with chronic diseases are more vulnerable to COVID-19 than other age groups.

Incubation period:From 1 to 14 days. For most people it’s 3 to 7 days.

Symptoms:Main symptoms are fever, fatigue, and dry cough. Few patients with Symptoms such as nasal congestion, runny nose, and diarrhea. Some
patients only show low fever, slight fatigue, etc. Severe patients often
cough after 1 week of infection and are difficult to breathe.

Medicine:There is no known effective medicine can remove the virus from
our bodies and cure people.

Prognosis:Most people will recover. A small number of patients have severe symptoms. Senior people and people with chronic diseases have severe symptoms. The virus has lighter symptoms on children.

Individual protection

Home isolation:

The goal of home isolation is to stop physical transmission of the virus in order to avoid 2nd and 3rd generation victims. When we have virus carriers with mild or no symptoms, home isolation becomes an important and effective means to solve the problems that medical teams cannot. If any symptom shows up, one must see a doctor. During home isolation, we could use the time to participate social media, watch TV drama, do readings, appreciate teas and other entertaining activities to make the COVID-19 lose its transmission method and then vanish.

Who needs home isolation?:

Anyone who has travelled to high risk regions. Anyone who has contacts with someone who has travelled to high risk regions.If the above mentioned didn’t develop any COVID-19 symptoms, he or she need home isolation ; if developed symptoms, please report to your local authorities ASAP and see a doctor

How to perform a home isolation?:

A single room or unit with good air circulation including kitchen and Family members should live in different rooms.Stay ONE METER away from the isolator if there is not enough room Narrow down activity radius and avoid sharing a space, especially avoid having food together.Never share toothbrushes, towels, food utensils, toilet and beddings, reject any visitings.
Use a designated healthy care giver with no chronic diseases. Care giver must wear masks if staying with the isolator in a closed space. Use alcohol swab if no visible waste spotted after touching isolator’s objects. If there is
visible waste left on care giver’s hands, use soap and running water to clean up.

Disinfection:Clean bedroom furniture and bathroom countertops daily with a chlorine-containing disinfectant. Wash the isolator’s clothing and bedding with hot water at 60–90 ° C and common household laundry detergent to avoid contamination of the clothes. Separate them with clean clothes.

Secretions and excreta

Respiratory secretions:

When everyone coughs or sneezes, they should wear medical masks or cover them with paper towels and sleeves. Clean their hands immediately after coughing and sneezing. Dispose of tissues or towels covering your nose and mouth, or wash them properly after use (such as washing with ordinary soap / detergent and water).

Excrement:

Wear disposable gloves when contacting the mouth, respiratory secretions,
urine, or feces of an isolated person. The excreta of the quarantine should be sealed and discarded into “harmful garbage” bins. Cover the toilet when
flushing the toilet.

Contaminants:

Contaminants such as gloves, paper towels, and masks should be concentrated in the patient’s room and discarded after marking.

Tableware:

For tableware used by the quarantine, they should be washed
with detergent and water after use, and do not need to be discarded.

Self isolation dismissal criteria:

If symptoms do not occur, quarantine until 14 days after the last contact with the patient or departure from the endemic area. If the isolator developed any related symptoms, go to see a doctor

When to wear masks?:

During the epidemic, it is recommended to wear a mask when meeting people, going to public places, entering crowded or closed places, and taking public transportation. You don’t have to wear mask if alone or in an open area.

Which mask should I wear?:

For the general public (except for medical workers or epidemic-related staff),
it is recommended to wear disposable medical masks. Staff in densely populated places (hospitals, airports, railway stations, subways, ground buses, planes, trains, supermarkets, restaurants, etc.) protective masks that meet N95 / KN95 and above standards. Paper masks, activated carbon masks, cotton masks, and sponge masks are not recommended.

How to use a mask correctly? N95/KN95:

The correct use of disposable medical masks / medical surgical masks are as
follows:

  1. The nose clip is facing up, and the outer dark side is facing outward (or the folds are facing down).
  2. Fold up and down to cover the mouth, nose, and jaw.
  3. Press the tips of your two fingers along the metal strip of the nose bridge.
  4. Adjust the mask appropriately so that the area around the mask fits your face well.

Can I use a mask with a breathing valve?:

The general population can, because wearing a breathing valve mask can protect the wearer. Suspected confirmed patients should not wear a mask with a breathing valve, because the breathing valve cannot prevent the wearer’s droplets from spreading into the environment.

How long can a mask be used? Must I use disposable ones?:

For the general public, in the case of no contact with patients or suspected infections, the life time of a mask can be appropriately extended according to the degree of cleanliness, and reused as appropriate, but it should not be shared. Wash hands according to rules before wearing, and avoid touching the inside of the mask when wearing. Once a mask is contaminated with droplets or other pollutants, or the mask is deformed, damaged, or has a strange smell, it should be replaced immediately.

How to care reusable masks?:

To reuse a mask, hang it in a clean, dry, ventilated place, or place it in a clean,
breathable paper bag. Masks should be stored separately to avoid contact with each other and identify the users of the masks. Medical standard protective masks cannot be cleaned, nor can they be disinfected by disinfectants, heating and other methods; other non-medical masks should be handled according to instructions.

How to dispose a used mask?:

The masks worn by the general population have no risk of transmission of the new coronavirus. After use, they are sealed in plastic bags and disposed of in accordance with the requirements of domestic waste classification. The masks
suspected of being used by patients and their caregivers are collected and treated in accordance with medical waste, and hands should be washed after
handling the masks.

How do pregnant women and children choose masks?:

Pregnant women wearing protective masks should pay attention to their own conditions and choose products with good comfort. Children
are at the stage of growth and development, and their faces are small.
Please choose masks are designed for children.

What to do if the elderly and patients with other diseases are uncomfortable wearing masks?:

The elderly and patients with chronic diseases such as cardiopulmonary diseases may feel uncomfortable after wearing a mask, and may even aggravate the original condition. They should seek professional guidance from a doctor.

Do I need to wear gloves in my daily life?:

There is no need for most people. Frequently washing hands is sufficient.workers, Medical close contacts, flight attendants and other workers in crowded places should wear gloves to reduce the risk of contact transmission. But wearing gloves is not a substitute for hand hygiene. Wash your hands frequently.

Do I need to wear goggles in my daily life?:

There is no need for most people. Frequently washing hands is
sufficient Do not use unwashed hands to rub our eyes.

What are the disinfection methods?:

The virus is sensitive to ultraviolet rays and heat. Fatty solvents such as ether, 75% ethanol (alcohol), chlorine-containing disinfectant, peracetic acid, and chloroform can effectively inactivate the virus at 30 ° C for 30 minutes at 56 ℃. Chlorhexidine cannot effectively inactivate the virus. Due to the lack of evidence for inactivation of new coronavirus by other disinfection
methods, other disinfection methods are not recommended for disinfection of new coronavirus.

What are the possible disinfection methods at home?:

Our skin can be disinfected with disinfecting alcohol or soaking. The
surface of the object can be wiped with disinfectant alcohol or chlorine
disinfectant.

Washing hands When to wash?

After returning from a public place, after touching public goods, after coughing or sneezing, covering with hands, after taking off a mask, before eating, after touching food, etc.

What to wash my hands with?:

Hand soap or soap with running water, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

How to wash hands?:

Wet hands under running water. Take an appropriate amount of hand sanitizer or soap and apply evenly to the entire palm, back of the hand and fingers.Rub your hands carefully for at least 15 seconds as follows:

  1. facing each other, fingers close together, rubbing each Palms and other.
  2. Rub the palms of your hands along the back of your fingers.
  3. Palms facing each other, rubbing one hand’s fingers using another hand’s fingers.
  4. Bend your fingers so that the knuckles rotate and rub on the palm of the other hand.
  5. Hold the thumb of the left hand in the right hand, rotate and rub, and then change to another hand.
  6. Place the tips of five fingers close together on the palm of your other hand to rotate and rub them.
  7. Rinse hands thoroughly under running water.
  8. Dry your hands with a clean towel or paper towel.

Coughing Cough etiquette:

Cover your elbows or paper napkins on your nose and mouth when you cough or sneeze. Never cover your mouth and nose with your hands.Coughing and sneezing can release a lot of viruses. After the virus contaminates your hands,
if you can’t wash your hands in time, the places where your hands come in
contact with will also be contaminated by viruses, such as door handles, elevator buttons, tables and chairs and other objects. At this time, people may get infected if they touches these contaminated parts, if they do not wash their hands in time, and if they touch the mouth, eyes, and nose with their hands Cover it with your elbow and sneeze the virus on your clothes without contaminating the surface of other objects. Therefore, special emphasis
is placed on the etiquette of cough. At the same time, you can’t touch your body without washing your hands, especially your mouth, eyes, and nose.

Will the new coronavirus spread from the feces to the mouth?:

Virus nucleic acid has been tested positive in the stool of patients with pneumonitis infected by the new coronavirus. However, fecal viral nucleic acid positive fecal-oral transmission, the public should not over-interpret, let alone panic. At present, the transmission routes of aerosol and digestive tract are not clear. The prudent approach is as follows:

  1. Wash your hands before and after meals.
  2. Remember to close the toilet lid before flushing after going to the toilet.

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