Quantum computer a deep look

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At present, human society has entered the era of Internet information. With the continuous development of computers, people have slowly discovered that two-dimensional classical computers may evolve into three-dimensional quantum computers, and then produce wisdom similar to humans. In November 2018, Google announced the creation of a partnership with Nasa. They will analyze the results of quantum circuits running on Google’s quantum processors and compare them with classical simulations to verify Google’s hardware and create a foundation for quantum superiority. The so-called quantum hegemony is also called quantum superiority. It means that quantum computers solve problems that classical computers cannot actually accomplish, but these problems themselves may not have practical applications.

From the perspective of computational complexity theory, the acceleration of quantum computers relative to the best classical algorithms is hyperpolynomial, and the concept of quantum computing advantages can be traced back to the quantum computing suggestions put forward by Yuri-Manin and Richard Feynman .

In October 2017, IBM of the United States demonstrated a simulation of 56 qubits on a traditional supercomputer, thereby increasing the number of qubits required for quantum superiority. At present, the fastest supercomputer in the world is the “peak computer” of IBM.

Now we call the problem that the supercomputer takes 10,000 years to calculate as an impossible task. But if a quantum computer is used, this task may be simplified, and it may even only take a bowl of instant noodles. The 200 seconds required is 1.5 billion times the difference between the previous and 10,000 years. .

There is also a speed gap of several million times when comparing a normal home board computer with a super computer, so the speed of a quantum computer and a home computer will be an astronomical number. Quantum computers can complete calculations that classical computers cannot succeed. This is called quantum hegemony.

However, on November 23, 2019, the Nature Journal published an academic paper on Google’s quantum superiority, and many scholars and people discussed it. U.S. President Trump’s daughter Ivanka said on Twitter that the United States has taken the lead in entering quantum hegemony, and Google’s project is carried out in cooperation with the Trump administration and the University of California, Santa Barbara. Immediately aroused widespread concern in the world.

The CEO of Google also responded to this incident when he was interviewed. He used a euphemistic metaphor to say that the experiment was like the first flight of the Wright brothers. Although it has not yet been applied, the concept is very feasible.

The size of the quantum computer is about the same as the kitchen of a normal home, while the peak computer covers an area of ​​522 square meters, which is about the same size as two tennis courts combined.

Supercomputers need more than 10,000 chips to run, while quantum computers only need one chip, so a chip can complete more than 10,000 chips with 10,000 years of calculations in a cup of instant noodles. This comparison sounds beyond people’s expectations. Up.

The biggest problem that restricts the development of quantum computers today is the environment in which its internal hardware is placed. It must ensure the entangled state of each calculation source and perform calculations in an environment of minus 273.15 degrees. This temperature is also called absolute zero. It can ensure that its computational elements are in a standard quantum entangled state.

To maintain this temperature for a long time, a very large machine is needed for refrigeration, so a space as large as a kitchen is needed. If the technology matures in the later stage, only a chip the size of a fingernail is needed. If you wanted to create a computational element of a quantum entangled state 6 years ago, it would be very difficult. But in the last year, 50 have been manufactured.

The quantum computer mentioned above uses 53 computational elements. So what can this quantum computer accomplish?

In fact, one of its uses is big data calculations, such as common weather forecasts in daily life. The reason why today’s weather forecasts are often inaccurate is that it is difficult for computers to simulate complex weather conditions. It takes a long time for an ordinary computer to complete the calculation, but if it cannot be calculated in one day, then the forecast for the next day will be meaningless.

But with quantum computers, the global natural environment can be simulated, so weather forecasts will become very accurate. In a sense, it can predict the future, and can even be used to predict the stock market and foreign exchange market. The reason why it is difficult to make money in the current stock market and foreign exchange market is because it is unpredictable. In addition, quantum computers can also crack codes. For example, it takes 10,000 years for ordinary computers to crack all kinds of encrypted codes, while quantum computers only need 200 seconds.

So this directly caused a devastating blow to the current government and military institutions, as well as banks. In addition, virtual currencies that rely on the Internet will also be affected. For example, Bitcoin is based on code. With quantum computers, only a cup of instant noodles can be used to directly evaporate virtual currencies. This is also the reason why Bitcoin suddenly plummeted on the day of the Quantum Computing News.

But after a short period of downturn, its price rebounded again. Because if quantum computing does happen, not only Bitcoin is dangerous, but even the National Bank and the government will be easily breached, but there will be corresponding encryption methods based on quantum computing.

Although a quantum computer can complete decryption, it can also be used for encryption. And based on the development of quantum computers, corresponding software will also develop rapidly. So what kind of progress will be made in the future is simply an unimaginable miracle point, but when the miracle point will come, it is estimated that it will be decades later.

Google has also issued an article stating that it will take decades to study quantum computers if they want to be completely popularized. But last year, IBM in the United States has begun to sell the most advanced quantum computers that perform calculations for special purposes.

So how do quantum computers calculate?

An ordinary computer can only store one number 0 or 1 in a calculation unit, but a quantum computer can store two numbers 0 and 1 at the same time. Assuming that both computers have only 10 computing units, an ordinary computer can only form a ten-digit number at most.

The quantum computer can form 2 to the tenth power of numbers, so it can process 1024 data, and the speed is 1000 times faster than ordinary computers, so Google quantum computer and ordinary data are 1.5 billion times different, that is Because it uses 53 computing units. Simply put, ordinary computers only recognize two numbers 0 or 1. Quantum computers can be three numbers 0 1 and a mixed state of 0 1. So quantum computers have one dimension higher than ordinary computers.

From a certain point of view, the structure of a quantum computer is the same as the human brain. The human brain is constructed in three dimensions. The reason why ordinary computers cannot simulate the human brain is because it lacks a dimension. We often say that computers can never learn something about people, such as imagination or emotions.

The reason is that it does not have the third state. Because quantum computers have the third state, the artificial intelligence created by using it may generate true wisdom and emotions. It may even dream and be creative. On the other hand, the human brain is also a quantum computer with another structure.

It performs a lot of calculations every day. From the moment we open our eyes every day, the surrounding scenes are all recorded, and this speed is no less than that of any computer.

There is a brain science research expert in the United States who discovered that there is a particularly magical situation in the human brain. At present, the usual cognition in biology is that the human brain is composed of neurons and neural networks. So if we stimulate a certain neuron in the human brain, and this signal needs to be transmitted to another neuron in the human brain, it needs to pass through the neural network.

In this transmission process, all neurons will be activated, but in fact, they did experiments and found that this was not the case. When one part of the human brain is stimulated, although the other part also responds, the neural network in the middle does not perform at all. This experiment has reached a conclusion. They believe that the human brain has this entangled state of quantum, and the whole human brain will not produce a cascading reaction because of stimulating a part of the neurons.

But how the information is transmitted to another part, scientists have not yet come to a conclusion, and the most incredible part of the human brain is that it is the simplest part of the entire body. The rest of the human organs are quite complicated, like a precision machine inside. But only the human brain relies on neurons and neural networks. All our technologies are now developing in the direction of vectorons. It is even possible that a quantum virtual world will be created in the future, but the quantum computing inside will also generate wisdom. But in any case, it must be limited to a certain range after all, just like human beings are limited in the universe. But if we really can one day break through two dimensions and evolve quantum computers into three-dimensional human intelligence, the world will also undergo tremendous changes.

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Digital Nomad

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